While the increase in arrivals of asylum seekers throughout 2018 and 2019 has exacerbated difficulties in accessing reception, the actual conditions in reception facilities have not deteriorated since reception capacity was increased. The problem asylum seekers face on some occasions is the long waiting time before they can be placed in accommodation facilities.
Conditions in CAR and NGO accommodation
The majority of available places for asylum seekers in Spain are in reception centres, during the first phase of reception, which lasts for a maximum of 6 months. As stressed, during the second phase they are placed in private housing, as the final aim is their autonomy within the Spanish society.
In general, there have not been reports of bad conditions of reception. In fact, there are no registered protests or strikes by applicants. Unless they are placed in private housing, asylum seekers are not able to cook by themselves during the first phase of reception, as meals are managed by the authority in charge of the centre.
Hosted applicants have access to several types of activities, which may vary from trainings or leisure programmes. In general, particular conditions or facilities within the reception centre depend on the authority managing the reception places. As the majority of centres are managed by specialised NGOs, generally the staff that works with asylum seekers during their reception is trained and specialised.
The accommodation of every asylum seeker is decided on case by case basis, in order to prevent tensions or conflicts (such as nationality or religious based potential situations), vulnerability or violence. Single women for example are usually placed in female-only apartments, while the same happens for single men. In this context, the unity of families is also respected, as family members are placed together.
The usual length of stay for asylum seekers inside the reception facilities is the maximum stay admitted, which is 18 months, extendable to 24 months for vulnerable persons. This is due to the fact that the system is divided into 3 main phases that gradually prepare the person to live autonomously in the hosting society. Following the Royal Decree adopted in September 2015, asylum seekers whose application has been rejected may remain within the reception facilities until they reach the maximum duration of their stay. In addition, it should be noted that asylum applicants must complete the first reception phase within asylum facilities in order to access the support foreseen in the second phase; the completion of the first phase is mandatory.
At the beginning of 2021, some migrant families reported intimidating treatment and poor living conditions at a hostel managed by and NGO in Rocafort (València). They complained about the lack of electricity during the night, the impossibility to use heaters, the lack of sufficient blankets, and the limited access to food as the latter is locked. An investigation has been subsequently opened.
Conditions in CETI
Overcrowding in the CETI in Ceuta and Melilla is a serious issue that has persisted in recent years, including in 2020, resulting in poor or substandard reception conditions for asylum seekers and migrants.
The two CETI are reception facilities that receive the most criticism from organisations and institutions that monitor migrants’ and refugees’ rights. In 2016 and 2017, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, UNICEF, and the Spanish Ombudsman, published reports in which they denounced deficiencies in the conditions concerning the two centres. Similarly in 2018, different organisations and institutions kept on expressing concerns about the living conditions in such facilities. Accommodation standards have been considered inadequate and concerns about the exposure of women and children to violence and exploitation due to the continuous overcrowding have been highlighted. In light of this, the Council of Europe Special Representative of the Secretary General on Migration and Refugees expressed the necessity for the Spanish authorities to “ensure that CETIs in Ceuta and Melilla have the same standards in terms of living conditions, education, health care, language and training courses which asylum-seekers are entitled to and receive in mainland Spain”. A report by the Jesuit Migrants Service also stressed inadequate conditions at the CETI in Melilla, especially in cases of prolonged stays, as well as the lack of identification of vulnerabilities, of a gender and age perspective and of guaranteeing residents’ rights to privacy and family life.
On top of overcrowding, CETI do not provide satisfactory conditions for family units and overall for families with minors. As a result, families are separated and children stay with only one of their parents. In both centres, the shortage of interpreters and psychologists has also been criticised.
At the beginning of January 2020, the human rights activist José Palazón, president of the Melilla-based NGO Prodein reported, that a young man had been expelled from the CETI in Melilla for causing disorder. Residents of the centre, however, stated that the young man is suffering from mental health disorders and that the CETI did not provide him with adequate assistance. The activist added that, since the beginning of the year, different asylum seekers, mainly originating from Mali, Tunisia and Algeria were denied access to and support at the CETI. He also reported that 7 Moroccan families with 22 children have been expelled from the CETI without receiving their documentation back and were thus forced to sleep on the street. The majority of them had applied for asylum for having participated to the protests in the Rif region.
Following the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain, an extraordinary transfer to mainland from the CETI in Ceuta has been organised. In order to comply with the preventive corona measures adopted at national level, 105 Sub-Saharan and Algerian persons were referred to reception centres managed by NGOs in Andalucía and Castilla La Mancha. Nevertheless, the continuous problems of overcrowding especially at the CETI of Melilla have worsened in 2020 following the COVID-19 outbreak. Since the beginning of the pandemic, many stakeholders have been asking the Minister of Interior to increase transfers to mainland, in order to relieve the centres. Amnesty International collected 5,266 signatures requesting the immediate transfer to mainland of vulnerable migrants (i.e. pregnant women, LGTBI+ persons, persons with chronical illness); and the NGO CEAR further demonstrated the negative consequences as well as the increased vulnerability of persons which were not transferred to mainland. In Agust 2020, five blind Moroccan migrants asked the President of Ceuta and the Government Delegation to be transferred to mainland after 1 year of staying at the CETI. Other NGOs such as Save the Children, Jesuit Migrant Service, Doctors of the World, but also the General Confederation of Workers (Confederación General de Trabajadores – CGT), called for an evacuation to the mainland. 
Similar calls were made by the Spanish Ombudsman. In May 2020, the latter urged the Ministry of Interior to transfer from the CETI of Melilla to mainland at least children and single women, because they are at risk of sexual and other forms of violence in the overcrowded centre, that reached up to 1,600 persons at that time. In April 2020, the same body urged the urgent transfer to mainland of a Moroccan woman victim of domestic violence with her three children, because her asthmatic condition increased her vulnerability to coronavirus.
The Association Coordinator of Neighbourhoods (Coordinadora de Barrios) lodged a claim at the Public Prosecutor Office for the “torturing” conditions at the CETI of Melilla, asking to investigate the situation of overcrowding and the lack of assistance to migrants and asylum seekers.
When the spread of the virus increased around April 2020, infecting at least 85 persons out of the 1,300 persons hosted at the CETI in Mellila, Amnesty International reiterated its concerns regarding the issue of overcrowding and the impossibility to follow distancing rules. Given the lack of response of the Minister of Interior, other Health or Migration authorities were called upon to alleviate the situation of overcrowding at the centre. Nevertheless, the tension increased at the centre, resulting in a riot where police officers were injured and 26 persons detained.
In June 2020, a group of migrants and asylum seekers at the CETI in Ceuta also organised a protest, asking to resume transfers to mainland as the latter had been suspended during the first COVID-19 outbreak. Many of them claimed to be asylum seekers waiting for a transfer decision since at least one year or more. The lack of clear and transparent criteria regarding transfers from Ceuta and Melilla to mainland are a persisting concern, which increases stress and frustration on top of the existing problems, and resulting in regular protests and strikes. In April 2020, around 600 Tunisian migrants started a hunger strike, asking for the resumption of transfers but also arguing that the transfers of other nationalities were prioritised over theirs. Seven of them decided to sew their lips in protest.
Several international organisations and NGOs have expressed their concerns about the conditions in the CETI, in particular in Melilla.
- In August 2020, IOM and UNHCR asked the Spanish authorities for an urgent coordinated response to the reception conditions at the CETI of Melilla, that they qualified as “alarming”. Both organisations recommend to adopt a rapid assessment procedure and adequate measures which would facilitate the transfer of asylum seekers to the mainland, voluntary return, family reunification etc.
- The Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights also urged the Spanish authorities to find alternatives to accommodation for migrants and asylum seekers living in substandard conditions in Melilla.
- In its World Report 2021, Human Rights Watch expresses the same concerns on overcrowding at the CETI in Melilla and at a temporary shelter set up in a local bullring. It reports also about two decisions adopted by the first-instance judge of Melilla (Juzgado de Primera Instancia e Instrucción) that rejected the authorities’ attempts to lockdown the CETI and other five social centresafter the outbreak of Covid-19 cases.
- Oxfam Intermón joined the call to the Spanish Government to transfer migrants and asylum seekers to mainland in order to avoid in Melilla a tragedy similar to the one in Moria, Greece.
- Save the Children also denounced the lack of resources to guarantee education, health and leisure activities to the 200 children present at the CETI in Melilla during 2020.
Conditions in other reception facilities
Living conditions on the Canary Islands
During 2020, many challenges in providing adequate reception conditions to migrants and asylum seekers were reported in particular on the Canary Islands. This is due to the significant increase of arrivals as described in Arrivals by sea, but also because of the overall lack of reception facilities and the deficient humanitarian assistance system on the Canary Islands. Thus, different temporary reception options have been adopted on an ad hoc basis, such as encampments, hotels, using parts of the CIE as reception facility, or using buildings belonging to the Ministries of defence and Home Affairs for the purpose COVID-19 quarantine.
In May 2020, the Spanish Red Cross and the NGO CEAR asked the Government to adopt a reception protocol for migrants arriving to the Canary Islands during quarantine, in order to ensure a better management of reception conditions considering the lack of adequate infrastructures and the high number of arrivals. During an unannounced visit carried out by the Spanish Ombudsman to the police dependencies at the port of Las Palmas de Gran Canarias – which were used as CATE – the body observed a serious lack of logistic, health and sanitary measures to avoid the spread of the COVID-19 in closed places.
In August 2020, the NGOs CEAR and Doctors of the World urged the competent administrations to guarantee decent reception conditions to migrants and asylum seekers arriving to the Canary Islands. The organisations reported that, because of COVID-19, newly arrived persons are held for more than 72 hours in an industrial warehouse at the port La Luz instead of being brought to a police station for the identification procedure. This situation has been repeatedly denounced by different stakeholders (including the Supervisor Judge of the CIE of Gran Canaria), as well as the impossibility to secure housing for migrants who were thus left at the dock of Arguineguín.
The encampment at the dock of Arguineguín (Gran Canaria), created impromptu in August 2020 to address the increase of arrivals and to provide temporary reception to 400 persons, ended up hosting up to 2,600 persons. The deplorable living conditions were also denounced, with migrants sleeping on blankets in the open, without the possibility of changing clothes and with no access to showers – in some cases, persons could not access showers for more than 20 days. The dock was renamed “the dock of shame” and became the symbol of the failure of the Spanish (and EU) migratory policy. The Judges for Democracy (Jueces y Juezas para la Democracia – JJpD) confirmed that the situation and the conditions of the encampment were the consequence of the erroneous migratory policy of the Government, and recalled that migration policies must be human-rights oriented. The Spanish Ombudsman and Amnesty International called for the immediate closure of the encampment, and the latter recalled that migrants arriving to the Canary Island must be treated in respect of human rights and with transparency.
The Arguineguín’s encampment was finally dismantled at the end of November 2020 and newcomers were brought to a new encampment, located at a military site in Barranco Seco (Gran Canaria). However, following the dismantlement of Arguineguín’s camp, around 200 migrants reported to have been left on the street without any information nor resources or reception solutions during many hours.Many stakeholders, such as the Spanish Ombudsman or the NGO CEAR, repeatedly called upon the authorities to transfer migrants and asylum seekers from the Canary islands to appropriate reception facilities on the mainland. Yet, between January and November 2020, the Ministry of Inclusion, Social Security and Migration only transferred between 10% and 15% of all the newcomers to the mainland, out of which around 2,000 were vulnerable migrants and asylum seekers. The deterrence policy followed by the Government on the Canary Islands is similar to the one applied in Ceuta and Melilla, whereby only a minority of transfers are carry out to mainland. In December 2020 the Council of Ministries adopted different measures aiming at ensuring the functioning and improvement of the reception system on the Canary Islands with a budget of € 83 millions. Despite this investment, the Minister of Interior stated in December 2020 that the main objective remains to resume deportations as soon as possible, and that expulsion of migrants is one of the main axes of his migratory policy.
The Government announced that it would find adequate reception solutions by the end of 2020, but the abovementioned challenges have persisted at the beginning of 2021. Around 7,000 migrants and asylum seekers were being hosted in hotels in the southern part of the island of Gran Canaria, and only one out of seven reception centres was operating. Some municipalities on the Canary Islands further started to threaten hotels with fines in case they would be hosting migrants and asylum seekers after 31 December 2020.
In mid-January 2021, the Ministry of Inclusion, Social Security and Migration announced the opening of a new reception facility at the former military regiment Canarias 50, with a reception capacity of 442 places. This is the second facility that is foreseen by the Government’s Canarias Plan, which aims to create a total of 7,000 reception places. Doctors of the World warned that the new facilities that the Government plans to build on the Canary Islands are likely to replicate the situation of the Arguineguín’s dock. In February 2021, a technical accident resulted in the flooding with sewage water of the camp. Video footage from inside the camp seen by several media outlets shows dirty water entering tents where people sleep and brown puddles under their beds. A few days earlier, the same camp had been flooded after heavy rainfall.
At the beginning of 2021 tension rose between migrants sheltered on the Canary Islands, where the fear of deportation and the poor living conditions led to hunger strikes, protests and self-harm, including a man’s attempt to jump off a balcony. More than 175 persons, hosted in a hotel for 3 months, started a hunger strike to protest against their retention in Tenerife. In early February 2021, 450 people accommodated at a school in Gran Canaria went into hunger strike to protest their current living situation. In February 2021 the Government authorised the transfer of 1,000 vulnerable migrants to mainland, out of which a majority are women with children.
During the first months of 2021, the Senate will work on a report on migration, in view of the modification of the Regulation of the Immigration Law. However, the Senate was refused access to the reception facilities on the Canary Islands by the Ministry of Interior. During a hearing at the Senate on the preparation of the report, the NGO CEAR thus presented a set of 12 proposals to address migration on the Canary Islands, which includes the creation of a stable structure for the humanitarian assistance to migrants and asylum seekers, and the guarantee of a flexible, transparent and systematised policy for transfers to mainland, i.e. without discrimination based on nationality.
At the end of 2020 and during the beginning of 2021, different NGOs started to open reception facilities on the Canary Islands under the humanitarian programme funded by the Ministry of Inclusion, Social Security and Migration. Accem opened a reception facility with 2,400 places in Tenerife under the humanitarian programme. The Fundación Cruz Blanca opened one centre in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria with 536 places, and another facility with a capacity of 200 places was under construction on the same island at the time of writing. The organisation Fundación Cruz Blanca, which is specialised in the assistance to trafficked persons, has also opened two centres in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. One centre has 35 places available and aims to provide comprehensive assistance to men presumed to be victims of human trafficking; while the other centre had 25 places and is dedicated to women presumed to be victim of trafficking. It is unclear yet how many reception centres will be opened on the Canary islands and what will be the total reception capacity in 2021 as the situation was evolving on a daily basis by the time of writing of this report. Nevertheless, in February 2021 the Council of Minister approved a budget of €15,8 million for the reception of migrants arriving to the Canary Islands.
Moreover, as already mentioned above, EASO will support the reception authorities in Spain. This includes providing enhanced capacity to reception services in the Canary Islands. In January 2021, EASO carried out a needs’ assessment mission at six sites in the Canary Islands, which have received a high number of persons with international protection needs in recent months. The mission was carried out in order to enable the Agency to tailor its support to the specific needs in the region, and the results were discussed with the State Secretary for Migration of Spain.
Living conditions in Cañada Real of Madrid
An informal settlement of Cañada Real has been set up in Madrid where many migrants and other persons live. The living conditions are extremely poor and, since the last quarter of 2020, there is no electricity available. This situation affects around 4,600 persons, including 1,800 children, many of them of a young age. The responsible authorities have not taken any measures yet to address this issue.
In December 2020, the Spanish Ombudsman urged the competent authorities to immediately solve the situation, which was worsening due to the cold and bad weather conditions. The seriousness of the situation and the impact on the health of the children has been also stressed by different UN Rapporteurs, asking inter alia to stop stigmatising migrants, Roma population and persons living in poverty. The UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights stated that the poor living conditions faced by families is in violation of the conventions ratified by Spain and further criticised the politisation of the situation on the Cañada Real, which is a shanty town in the Madrid Region composed of a succession of informal housing. The Special Repporteur reiterated in February 2021 the breach of international law by Spain in view of its inactivity for the protection of human rights.
The instruction judge (Juzgado de Instrucción) of Madrid opened a case against the Autonomous Community of Madrid and Naturgy/Unión Fenosa, the company providing the service. In addition, the European Parliament (EP) member Urban asked the EU Commission to urge the Autonomous Community of Madrid to provide decent reception solutions to families at risk of exclusion and to use the EU funds received to that end. The Spanish High Commissioner for Child Poverty further asked the President of the Autonomous Community to look for adequate reception solutions.Following low temperatures and winter conditions in Madrid in mid-January, a 74 years-old man died, 3 persons were hospitalised, and 40 persons were intoxicated because of butane gas canisters. Following these incidents, a report against the Autonomous Community of Madrid and Naturgy/Unión Fenosa has been lodged in front of the competent Court and the Public Prosecutor Office. The General Council of Spanish Lawyers (Consejo General de la Abogacía Española), the Pontificia Comillas of the University of Madrid, and the Platform for Childhood (Plataforma de Infancia),  also condemned the serious human rights violations occurring in Cañada Real.Living conditions in other informal settlements
The situation in informal settlements across Spain (especially in Andalucía) continued to be a concern in 2020. Many migrants and seasonal migrant workers live in these settlements in poor living conditions and with no access to basic services. Many of them are victims of trafficking, forced labour and forced prostitution.
After three fires at a settlement in Huelva (Andalucía), migrants and activists protested in front of the Municipality to call for adequate reception solutions. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation worsened due to the impossibility to access water, food and health services, as well as the impossibility to follow distancing rules and sanitary measures in the informal settlements in Almería (Andalucía). At the beginning of 2021, a fire at the settlement of Don Domingo in Almería left 2 persons wounded and around 200 persons affected, and another fire devasted the settlement of San Jorge in Palos de la Frontera (Huelva) fortunately without any damage to the 400 persons affected by it.
The Spanish Ombudsman expressed concerns about the rights of migrant workers in the agricultural sector. It called on authorities, employers and agricultural organisations to adopt coordinated and urgent solutions to address the inhuman conditions under which these workers live in different parts of Spain, and to guarantee their labour rights. In addition, the Spanish Ombudsman asked the Public Prosecutor for information on the investigations initiated after the death of a Nicaraguan citizen while working in a farm in the province of Murcia. The request also made reference to the difficulties in accessing the asylum procedure.
The NGO Accem also condemned the inhuman conditions faced by seasonal migrant workers employed in the agricultural sector across Spain. It recalls that, while the COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the issue, it remains a persisting matter of concern in the country. This includes poor housing conditions, overcrowding, limited access to basic services such as water or sanitation, as well as a situation of homelessness and social exclusion, labour exploitation and abuse.The UN Special Rapporteur on Poverty urged Spain to improve the deplorable conditions of seasonal workers, and to guarantee them decent work and housing conditions. In November 2020 a judge in Huelva (Andalucía) decided that a seasonal worker living in an informal settlement was entitled to the right to be registered at the Municipality of Lepe.
 Human Rights Watch, ‘Spain: LGBT Asylum Seekers Abused in North African Enclave’, 28 April 2017, available at: http://bit.ly/2oS5jTD. See also The Guardian, ‘In limbo in Melilla: the young refugees trapped in Spain’s African enclave’, 10 May 2017, available at: http://bit.ly/2pyuTxb.
 Council of Europe, Report of the fact-finding mission by Ambassador Tomáš Boček, Special Representative of the Secretary General on migration and refugees, to Spain, 18-24 March 2018, SG/Inf(2018)25, 3 September 2018, para 5.1.
 Servicio Jesuita a Migrantes, Sacar del Laberinto. Informe Frontera Sur 2018, December 2018, 39.
Amnesty International, Fear and Fences: Europe’s approach to keeping refugees at bay, EUR 03/2544/2015, November 2015, 23.
 Melilla Hoy, ‘Andalucía Acoge reclama al Ministerio del Interior la descongestión urgente del CETI de Melilla’, 28 August 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/38wpXS9, Ceuta TV, ‘La Federación Andalucía Acoge exige a Interior que desbloquee la situación de los CETI de Ceuta y Melilla’, 28 August 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3qe65JP; El Diario, ‘Interior ignora desde abril la petición del Defensor del Pueblo de trasladar a migrantes del saturado CETI de Melilla a la península por el riesgo de contagio’, 26 August 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3shvWT4.
 El Pueblo de Ceuta, ‘Los cinco invidentes del CETI piden ayuda a Vivas a través de una carta’, 24 September 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/35u2vDv; El Pueblo de Ceuta, ‘Son ciegos y, tras un año en el CETI de Ceuta, piden salir ya a la península’, 15 September 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2LJaupe.
 Jesuit Migrant Service, Save the Children, CEAR, Doctors of the World, Asociación Geum Dodou Melilla, Carta abierta al presidente de gobierno sobre la situación de las personas migrantes y refugiadas en la ciudad autonoma de Melilla en la actual crisis sanitaria Covid-19, 4 May 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/38JuzEE.
 Amnistía Internacional, ‘Atrapadas por el virus y la pasividad de tres ministerios: se deteriora la situación en el centro de Melilla para personas migrantes’, 2 October 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/35DrW5C
 IOM, UNHCR, IOM and UNHCR ask for an urgent and coordinated response to the alarming reception conditions of refugees and migrants in Melilla, 3 August 2020, available at: https://bit.ly/2Ke869o.
 Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Spain’s authorities must find alternatives to accommodating migrants, including asylum seekers, in substandard conditions in Melilla, 3 September 2020, available at: https://bit.ly/3oSDbic.
 Save the Children, ‘La protección de la infancia migrante y refugiada en España y en Europa. Resumen ejecutivo y conclusiones sobre España’, September 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2MUlsZl.
 Canarias7, ‘El Defensor del Pueblo denuncia carencias que afectaron a la salud de los migrantes’, 3 December 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2LAfBIE; Cope, ‘El Defensor del Pueblo inspecciona por sorpresa el campamento de Arguineguí’n, 16 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3p46CO9.
 La Vanguardia, ‘CEAR y Médicos del Mundo instan a garantizar unas “condiciones dignas” para los inmigrantes que llegan a Canarias’, 6 August 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2M8z7LW.
 Maldita, ‘¿Los inmigrantes pasan en el muelle de Arguineguín más de 72 horas? Marlaska lo niega, pero distintas organizaciones, cargos políticos con responsabilidad en Canarias y el juez de vigilancia del CIE de Gran Canaria aseguran que sí’, 19 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3iBErUn.
 Amnistía Internacional, ‘AI: “Es necesario afrontar la crisis migratoria en Canarias con pleno respeto de los derechos humanos y con transparencia”’, 27 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/38S70ty.
 El País, ‘Un baño de lejía para clausurar el campamento del muelle de Arguineguín’, 30 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3sCGbBi; El País, El Gobierno vacía el campamento de Arguineguín, 29 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/35TkyTL.
 El Diario, ‘Seis horas de angustia en la calle, sin recursos ni información, para los 227 migrantes desalojados del muelle de Arguineguín,’ 18 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3o1VSyk.
 El País,’ El defensor del pueblo: “Confinar inmigrantes en Canarias no es la solución”, 4 December 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/39JVjnQ; La Vanguardia, ‘CEAR pide al Gobierno que traslade a migrantes de Canarias a la Península’, 18 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/39SyzC6.
 Diario de Avisos, ‘Barcelona acogerá a 50 inmigrantes procedentes de Canarias’, 1 December 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3qtueMw; Europapress, ‘El traslado de 30 inmigrantes de Canarias a Sevilla eleva a casi 2.000 los enviados a la Península desde enero’, 25 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/35RWQaq.
 El Diario, Un gran campamento de migrantes llamado Canarias: “Quieren convertir las islas en Lesbos”, 21 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3bOoZD5; El Día, ‘José Antonio Moreno Díaz: “Canarias es una válvula del Estado para medir el acceso de migrantes”, 14 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2KuqURQ.
 Europapress, ‘Interior anuncia que pronto recuperará plenamente las devoluciones y se desvincula de los traslados a la Península’, 10 December 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2Nchs7h; Voz Populi, ‘El Gobierno asegura que la devolución de inmigrantes es “uno de los ejes” de su política migratoria’, 10 December 2020, available in Spnaish at: https://bit.ly/3azhL4R.
 El Diario, ‘Un hotel vaciado y dos campamentos a punto de abrir, así avanza el Plan Canarias de Migraciones’, 4 January 2021, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/39KqX4v; Carrera contrarreloj para construir los macrocampamentos de inmigrantes en Canarias, 4 December 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3bQc3fV.
 Information provided by Fundación Cruz Blanca, 15 January 2021.
 Defensor del Pueblo, El Defensor exige a la Comunidad de Madrid y a la Delegación de Gobierno una solución urgente para restablecer la luz en la Cañada Real, 21 December 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3qDSxHK.
 United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Spain: Power outages put children’s lives at risk in informal settlement – UN experts, 22 December 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2M3hz3Y
 Tercera Información, ‘La Cañada Real ante la ola de frío: Urban pregunta a la Comisión Europea y el Alto Comisionado contra la Pobreza Infantil dirige una Carta a Ayuso’, 7 January 2021, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2Nq84wB.
 Consejo General de la Abogacía Española, La Fundación Abogacía Española condena la vulneración de derechos fundamentales en la Cañada Real, 15 January 2021, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3iDPtZ6.
 Revista la Mar de Onuba, ‘Nuevas detenciones en el entorno agrario por explotación laboral de trabajadores en condiciones de esclavitud’, 27 May 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3sHpB3g.
 El País, ‘Cuando el coronavirus da menos miedo que el hambre, 12 May 2020, available at: https://bit.ly/3p7Chyo; El Diario, Sin acceso a agua ni posibilidad de aislarse: los temporeros que viven como si no hubiera pandemia’, 18 May 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3p9AGYR.
 Defensor del Pueblo, El Defensor pide que se garanticen los derechos laborales y unas condiciones de habitabilidad dignas para los temporeros agrícolas, 21 July 2020 available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3c1K2lv.
 El Diario, ‘El relator de la ONU sobre pobreza exige a España mejorar “las deplorables condiciones” de los temporeros “antes de que la gente muera”’, 24 July 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2OP9mBU.