In the Spanish reception system, efforts are made to place asylum seekers in the reception place which best fits their profile and needs depending on their age, sex, household, nationality, existence of family networks, maintenance, etc. A case by case assessment is made between OAR and the relevant NGO in charge of the reception centres and, after assessing the availability of reception spaces and the individual characteristics of the applicant, the person is placed in the place that responds to his or her needs. As asylum seekers’ placement is made on case by case basis, there is an ongoing monitoring mechanism which takes into consideration the response to reception needs of each person concerning the mentioned profiles.
In addition, based on vulnerability factors referred to under the Asylum Act, most vulnerable profiles are allowed to longer reception compared to the normal 18-month period. For vulnerable groups, reception under the first phase can last 9 months as well as an additional 15 months under the second phase, thus reaching a total of 24 months of reception.
Nonetheless, available resources have a generalised approach and do not cover the needs presented by the most vulnerable asylum applicants, who are referred to external and more specialised services in case they need them. The Spanish reception system in fact does not guarantee specialised reception places addressed to asylum applicants such as victims of trafficking, victims of torture, unaccompanied asylum-seeking children or persons with mental disorders. As mentioned in Health care, some NGOs offer receptions facilities and services for asylum seekers with health mental problems. In addition, some NGOs have specific places in their reception facilities specifically addressed to trafficked women.
Reception places for asylum-seeking victims of trafficking are very few, and their number is not made public by the MISSM. In July 2020, different NGOs part of the Network against Trafficking in Andalucía (Red Antena Sur contra la Trata) called for the creation of multidisciplinary teams to welcome migrants arriving by boat to the Spanish coasts, in order to detect victims of trafficking. They also called for the adoption of a comprehensive law addressing trafficking, and warned against the increased vulnerability of victims of trafficking following the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, UNHCR raised concerns over the risk of refugees becoming victims of trafficking as a result of COVID-19.
The generalised approach of the Spanish reception system has been criticised by several organisations in recent years, as it fails to provide adequate needs to the most vulnerable. The Spanish Ombudsman expressed its concerns regarding the serious deficiencies in the humanitarian assistance programmes for migrants. In its 2020 Annual Report, the Ombudsman reiterated the concerns, formerly outlined in a thematic report of 2016, regarding the deficiencies of the asylum reception system, increased in 2020 due to impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Amnesty International also called on the Spanish Government to reform its reception system, for it to be aligned with international human rights standards and adapted to asylum seekers’ needs.
Children and unaccompanied minors
There are no specialised resources for unaccompanied asylum seeking-children, and they are thus hosted in general centres for unaccompanied children or left destitute. The Committee on the Rights of the Child issued its Observations on Spain in 2018, where it expressed serious concerns about the reception of unaccompanied children. In particular, the Committee raised concerns about the deficiencies of the facilities and the overcrowding of some centres, as well as the cases of ill-treatment of children in reception centres. The Committee was also concerned about the reports of reclusion of children in isolation, erroneous medical diagnosis and wrong medical treatments, as well as the lack of oversight and reporting mechanisms to the authorities. The fact that unaccompanied children are often left homeless after coming of age has also been reported as a reason of concern in the last years.
Due to the conditions of the Melilla’s Centre of Protection of Minors in which they should live because they are under the administration’s custody, children prefer living on the city’s streets and try to reach the Spanish Peninsula hiding in boats. This situation concerned more than 100 children in 2017 and between 50 and 100 children in 2018. In December 2019, 93 children were in this situation, and 35 in February 2020. At the beginning of January 2021, 115 unaccompanied migrant children and 35 young adults (former UAMs who aged out in 2020) were living on the streets. In order to address issues concerning young adults, in April 2021 the City of Melilla and UNHCR agreed to ask the Minister of Inclusion, Social Security and Migration the transfer of former UAMs who apply for international protection to reception facilities for asylum seekers at the mainland. Information on whether such transfers were finally carried was not available at the time of writing.
In December 2019, the Treasury Office of the Government of Melilla submitted a report to the Public prosecutor for Children. The report refers to the “humanitarian catastrophe” resulting from the living conditions in the centre La Purísima, which accommodates unaccompanied children in Melilla. The report states that the conditions of the centres violate the children’s dignity and ignore their basic needs, thus putting their life at risk. This situation persists unchanged, as confirmed by the Spanish Ombudsman’s report. A similar situation was registered in the reception centre for unaccompanied migrant children Hortaleza in Madrid, a facility affected by recurrent structural deficiencies, as well as lacking in terms of the assistance and treatment received by children within the centre. At the beginning of January 2022, the police dismantled a child sexual trafficking network and detained 37 persons. The victims were girls under the protection and guardianship of the Autonomous Community of Madrid and accommodated at the Hortaleza facility. The Spanish Ombudsman requested information on the children rescued during said police operation to the Office for Family, Youth and Social Services, but no official response was made public at the time of writing. Similar cases were investigated in 2019 and 2020 in Baleares Islands and the Canary Islands. Save the Children expressed concerns on the cases of sexual abuse and exploitation in different reception facilities for unaccompanied migrant children in Spain, and called the Government to urgently adopt protocols for the prevention and early detection of such cases, as well as trainings to professionals.
Regardless of these calls from civil society, the situation did not improve in 2021. Overcrowding, inadequate living conditions and other relevant problems persisted. A COVID-19 outbreak at the UAMs’ centre in Ceuta uncovered the existing situation of overcrowding. Overcrowding and cases of children sleeping in the streets was also reported in Ceuta after the arrival in May of around 8,000 persons, including around 2,000 children. After the incident, Save the Children started to support Ceuta’s authorities in assessing individual child protection’s needs and vulnerabilities.
To face the increase in the arrival of UAMs, the Minister of Interior ceded the former prison ‘Los Rosales’ to the City of Ceuta for the construction of a reception facility for unaccompanied migrant children.
The situation of unaccompanied children in the Canary Islands started to raise concerns since 2020, when more than 2,000 children were reportedly not receiving adequate assistance and protection. These issues were not resolved in 2021, when many unaccompanied migrant children were hosted in reception facilities for adults. In March, the Government of the archipelago started to transfer some UAMs to facilities at the mainland. At the beginning of May, it urged a law for the distribution of UAMs between the Autonomus Communities, as just 101 children have been transferred so far. The same call for the distribution of UAMs has been made by the Spanish Ombudsman, who urged the Minister of Social Rights and Agenda 2030 to improve the protection of UAMs. The Minister of Interior refused the requirement made by the Government of the Canary Islands to involve specialised organisations in the identification of minors. The call was made in order to avoid children and adults to be accommodated at the same UAM’s facilities while waiting for the results of the age assessment.
In a report published in March 2021 specifically on the situation in the Canary Islands, the Spanish Ombudsman indicated that the lack of sufficient material and personal resources does not allow to provide unaccompanied children proper access to education, health assistance, and basic social services in the same conditions as Spanish children. In June, the Government of the Canary Islands started to investigate alleged cases of sexual exploitation of children in a reception facility for UAMs. In mid-September, at Lanzarote in the Canary Islands, there were no more place available to accommodate UAMs at reception facilities, due to the increase in arrivals.
In the same month, as already mentioned, 1,700 unaccompanied migrant children were still waiting to undergo the age assessment procedure. A report published by UNICEF informs that, at the beginning of July, there are 1,753 persons still waiting to have their age assessed. The organisation also stresses the limitations of the child’s protection system in the archipelago, the barriers children face in accessing their rights, including asylum. Vis-à-vis a possible increase in the arrivals during the autumn, the Government of the Canary Islands asked the central Government to reach an agreement for the reception and assistance to UAMs.
The Canary Heath System reported that feelings of loneliness, failure and fear undermine children’s mental health. With the purpose of standardising the intervention, avoiding unnecessary complementary tests, and diagnosing possible serious medical or clinic entities, the body adopted a set of recommendations for the assistance to asymptomatic African migrant children under the age of 15.
Amnesty International denounced that more than 1,000 unaccompanied migrant children at the Canary Islands are at risk of leaving in the streets, being deprived of their rights. Many of them were still waiting for a relevant procedure (i.e. age assessment) to be carried out, often for more than one year.
Another issue denounced in 2020 relates to the separation of children from their parents. This was carried out in the practice by the Public Prosecutor following boat arrivals at Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Children were separated from their parents for up to two months in order carry out DNA tests, which was heavily criticised. During this time, children are hosted in centres for unaccompanied migrant children, while their parents are in centres for adults. Due to the evident violations of children rights, the Superior Public Prosecutor of the Canary Islands asked for clarifications on the protocol in place at Las Palmas, while the Spanish Ombudsman opened an investigation on the issue, after receiving two complaints.
In May 2021, the long waiting time (up to 6 months) necessary to get the results of the AND tests in the Canary Islands was also highlighted as a specific issue regarding the treatment of unaccompanied minors.
Save the Children denounced the lack of trained and experienced professional on children rights and international protection in many UAMs’ reception facilities, as well as the lack of decent reception conditions.
A report published by the Foundation Por Causa underlines the different challenges of the Spanish system for what regards the protection and assistance to UAMs, highlighting various problematic practices. Besides the age assessment procedure, the organisation refers to the different models of intervention in each Autonomous Community, the shortage of rejection places for UAMs and young adults, the involvement of children in the decision-making processes, and the little use of foster care for UAMs.
In June 2021, the Law on the protection of children against violence – an important step forward in guaranteeing children rights and protection against any form of violence – was approved. The Platform of Childhood published a guide to disseminate the content of the law to different stakeholders, as well as to identify the next steps necessary to assure the effective and practical implementation of the law. Among others, the law established the obligation for the personnel of certain centres/facilities (i.e. health centres, schools, sport and leisure centres, social services) to communicate situations of violence against children. Professionals working at protection centres for unaccompanied migrant children, asylum reception facilities and centres for the humanitarian assistance of migrants are subjected to such obligation. In addition, the law reiterates the obligation of the competent authorities to guarantee children in need of international protection access to territory and to the asylum procedure, independently of their nationality and of the means used to access the Spanish territory, in accordance with the Asylum Act.
At the end of July 2021, the Government prepared a first draft of the Stable Strategy for the reception, assistance and integration of unaccompanied migrant children: approval is still pending at the time of writing.
In October 2021, the Government adopted the reform of the Regulation of the Immigration Law, aimed at fostering the integration of unaccompanied migrant children and young adults. Many stakeholders advocated for the reform of the Regulation of the Immigration Law, including many former UAMs, and they regarded it as an extremely positive development. The law will allow the regularization of around 8,000 young adults who arrived in Spain as UAMs. A month after its approval, close to 4,500 young migrants applied for the residence and work permit.
Thanks to the opening of a reception facility for UAMs at Rada de Haro (Castilla La Mancha) three years ago, the almost abandoned town revived, together with its economy and the job market.
Discrimination and hate crime
Discrimination and hate crimes against migrants and refugees continued to be a reason of concern in 2021.
In its 2020 Annual Report on Hate Crime, published in July 2021, the Ministry of Interior indicated a decrease of 17,9% of hate crimes in 2020 compared to 2019, which was likely a result of the lockdown and consequent temporary isolation of the population. Despite the decrease registered, hate crimes continued rising in other contexts, such as the cases in which the underlying motivations were racism and xenophobia.
Several developments relating to discrimination and hate crime were reported throughout 2021 and at the beginning of 2022:
- In March, 100 organisations sent a letter to the Minister of Interior asking for the adoption of measures to eradicate racial profiling by the police;
- During the same month, different organisations and groups joined in Valencia to protest against the increase of hate speech and the criminalisation of migrants. They also asked for the closure of CIEs and the derogation of the Immigration Law, that they consider as the cornerstone of institutional racism;
- In commemoration of the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination on 21st March, the Forum for the Social Integration of Immigrants (Foro para la Integración Social de los Inmigrantes) issued a declaration expressing concern over the increase in cases of discrimination, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the Forum asked the Government to immediately adopt a new national strategy against racism, together to a plan in order to implement it;
- In September the Minister of Interior announced the creation of specialised groups within the National Police and the Guardia Civil directed at tackling hate crimes;
- After a neo-Nazi demonstration held in Madrid in September, the Public Prosecutor opened an investigation for hate crime;
- In November, the Public Prosecutor Office denounced the leader of the far-right political party Bastión Frontal for hate crimes against migrants. The facts refer to the messages she released during a concentration organised by her party in front of the Embassy of Morocco in May;
- In January 2022, a woman and her child were insulted while in an ice rink in Valencia.
In 2021, the NGO Accem launched the campaign Ódiame (Hate me) with the purpose of rising awareness on all types of discrimination and hate speech (i.e. xenophobia, transphobia, LGTBI-phobia, racism, etc.) through social networks.
In March 2021 different institutions, civil society organisations and data hosting service providers elaborated a protocol to fight illegal hate speech online.
A report published by the NGO SOS Racismo in December 2021 describes the stereotypes and prejudices that migrant persons suffer in Spain, and the impact that hate speech and disinformation have on migrants. The trade union UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores – UGT) also launched a video to raise awareness about racism and xenophobia.
A study published by the Council for the Elimination of Racial or Ethnic Discrimination (Consejo para la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial o Étnica) on the perception of racial discrimination by its potential victims in 2020, underlines the existing institutional discrimination in multiple contexts, and the high level of exclusion existing in Spain. The report also sheds light on the discrimination that victims face in accessing basic rights and services, such as education or health services, as well as discrimination by police.
The significant increase in arrivals to the Canary Islands also contributed the rise of racist incidents. In January 2021, in the south of Gran Canaria, a group of migrants was threatened with a machete. The Moroccan Association for the Integration of Migrants (Asociación Marroquí para la Integración de los Inmigrantes) also expressed concerns on the growing tension on the Canary Islands. Criminalisation and hate messages against migrants are spreading, and limited measures are adopted to avoid such incidents. The NGO called for the transfer of migrants to the mainland. Similarly, the NGO Fundación Cruz Blanca denounced the aggression of 7 Moroccan men aged between 18 and 45 years-old within 5 days after their arrival in Las Palmas. In different parts of the archipelagos neighbours and municipalities started taking action against racism (i.e. meeting with NGOs and institutions in order to raise awareness on migration and fostering integration). The Public Prosecutor of Gran Canarias also started to investigate different messages used by certain groups to organise assaults against migrants.
Unaccompanied children also continued to face serious discrimination in Spain and to be criminalised during the year 2021. In March, a group of around 50 persons insulted and violently attacked some unaccompanied children (including some former UAMs) living in the city of Torredembarra (Tarragona) in Cataluña, with 2 children resulting injured. Hate speech in social networks against unaccompanied migrant children was also reported, with an increase of 30% during July and August 2021 according to the Spanish Observatory on Racism and Xenophobia.
The climate of hate seems to be driven by certain political parties. In January 2019, the People’s Party (Partido Popular) reinitiated a parliamentary initiative aiming at considering unaccompanied children economic migrants and thus calling for their expulsion. In December 2020, the right-wing party Vox used the escape of an unaccompanied child from a protection centre in Almería as an excuse to disseminate hate on migrants and pointing to their responsibility in the spread of COVID-19. During the electoral campaign in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, the right-wing party Vox issued a poster with a comparison between what an unaccompanied migrant child is supposed to receive in Spain and the sum that a Spanish old woman is supposed to receive for her retirement. The poster was based on manipulated and fake information, thus the Public Porsecutor office opened an investigation for a possible hate crime. The NGO CEAR also lodged a complaint for possible hate crimes and discrimination, but the file was closed as the poster was considered in line with right to freedom of expression. In addition, more than 200 organisations signed a call denouncing unacceptable the instrumentalization of unaccompanied migrant children by political and propaganda purposes.
The Spanish Ombudsman announced its intention to investigate whether the right-wing party Vox was responsible for committing a hate crime against unaccompanied children. Similarly, in November 2019 the Public Prosecutor of Sevilla launched an investigation against the president of Vox Madrid for committing a hate crime, as she had made statements inciting violence against unaccompanied children hosted in a centre of the city. In September 2020, the Public Prosecutor Office of Madrid warned against the campaign of physical and virtual harassment faced by unaccompanied migrant children, and how this climate has been encouraged by public declarations of certain political groups. Moreover, in February 2021, the Public Prosecutor denounced the hate crime advocated by a neo-Nazi group through social networks against some unaccompanied migrant children hosted in a reception facility in Madrid.
To tackle hate and negative perceptions against unaccompanied migrant children, the NGO Accem released an awareness-raising video titled ‘Treat me as a child’ (‘Que me traten como un niño’) in 2019. In addition, Save the Children launched the initiative ‘#YoSíTeQuiero’ (‘#Me, yes, I love you’), with the aim of fostering a realistic and positive communication on the issue. In 2020, the association Ex-menas formed by former unaccompanied migrant children of Madrid launched a video to raise awareness on their situation, inter alia to denounce the discrimination they face and to foster integration. In February 2022, Accem launched the campaign ‘Adolescents like everyone else, who need a family as everyone else’, which aims at promoting foster care of unaccompanied migrant children and at the same time focuses on fighting discrimination against unaccompanied minors and existing prejudices regarding their situation.
Important to note is the intention of the Minister of Interior to examine the possibility of changing the Spanish term usually employed to refer to unaccompanied minors (menor extranjero no acompañado – MENA) with a more equal and gendered terminology, inter alia with the aim to also include girls and adolescents (Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes Migrantes No Acompañados – NNAMNA). The NGO Save the Children launched a campaign (“MENAS es un stigma. Son niños y niñas solos”) to raise awareness on the stigmatisation stemming from the term “MENA” and to recall that they are children arriving alone to Spain. In November 2019, different organisations such as UNICEF, Save the Children, Fundación Raíces and Plataforma de Infancia denounced the discrimination faced by unaccompanied children in cooperation with the Spanish General Bar Council. In October 2020, a motion presented by the socialist party PSOE establishing the change in legislation of the word MENA with “unaccompanied boys, girls and adolescents” was approved.
Regarding the reception conditions of the Hortaleza centre in Madrid, in January 2020 the Spanish Ombudsman defined the situation of the facility as ‘critic’ and that it ‘deteriorates considerably’, especially in relation to overcrowding, the lack of an internal protocol on how to manage assaults and the lack of appropriate measures by the competent authority.
Asylum seekers, refugees and migrants in Spain continue to suffer from financial exclusion and discrimination, because of the challenges often faced while trying to open bank accounts. In February 2022, different organisations urged the Government and the Bank of Spain (Banco de España) to adopt urgent measures to make banking institutions comply with the law and to end a practice that impede the financial and social inclusion of asylum seekers, refugees and migrants.
Discrimination and incidents against LGBTQI+ persons (including asylum seekers and migrants) increased in 2021.
The LGTBI+ group Lambda in Valencia reported three attacks in one month against its office. Homophobic incidents have been reported in Melilla, where a Moroccan boy was brutally assaulted, and in Valencia, where a transsexual person was insulted and harassed. A transphobic graffiti was drawn in Huelva, and one against the trans law at the office of the LGTBI+ group COGAM in Madrid was also reported. The NGO Kifkif’s office in Madrid was vandalised, with excrement being left at its the entrance. The rise of homophobic assaults and incidents gave origin to many demonstrations across Spain, aimed at denouncing the raise hate crimes against the in LGTBI+ population, and at urging the Government to adopt measures against LGTBI+ phobia. A police raid in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Alicante at the end of January 2022 led to the dismantlement of a neo-Nazi group who disseminated hate messages and also attacked a LGTBI+ office near Alicante.
The Minister of Interior also reported on 31 July 2021, to have registered an increase in hate crimes and against the LGTBI+ community, which is also suffering more violent attacks. In particular, according to the data published by the Minister of Interior, homophobic registered a 23% since 2016. A survey carried out by YouGov in relation to the LGTBI+ group, however, shows that 91% of Spaniards would support family members/known persons declaring themselves gay, lesbian or bisexual.
The NGO Accem expressed concerns about the multiple obstacle and the discrimination faced by LGBTQI+ asylum seekers in Spain, affecting in particular transsexual women. The NGO Kifkif further called for public policies that effectively allow to overcome xenophobia and the multiple discrimination faced by LGBTQI+ refuges who are HIV positive.
A report published by the NGO CEAR in March 2021 underlines the discrimination and the inequal treatment that LGTBI+ third country nationals with a residence or work permit suffer in the workplace Spain, since the access to the job market.
Thanks to the approval of the Law for the Protection of Childhood and Adolescence toward Violence in June 2021, aporophobia has been introduced among hate crimes in the Spanish Criminal Code.
The Forum for the Social Integration of Migrants (Foro para la Integración Social de los Inmigrantes) adopted a resolution in June 2021 against hate crimes, by referring to the recent hate episodes occurred in the Region of Murcia, where a man from Moroccan origin was killed and a woman from Ecuadorian origin was assaulted. The body calls for more effective policy and social responses against such crimes, for a comprehensive law for equal treatment and no discrimination, the creation of an independent body responsible for the promotion of equal treatment, etc.
In occasion of the Gay Pride in July 2021, the NGO CEAR launched the awareness-raising campaign Sin Peros, calling for stopping discrimination against LGTBI+ migrants and refugees in Spain, and denouncing it hinders their possibility to enjoy their rights. The trade union UGT called for policies and strategies which guarantee the equality and no discrimination of LGTBI+ persons, while underlining the persecution and discrimination that LGTBI+ persons face in their countries of origin. During a press conference on the International Day against Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia on May 2021, the National Federation of Lesbians, Gays, Trans and Bisexual (Federación Estatal de Lesbianas, Gais, Trans y Bisexuales – Felgtb) recalled the discrimination and violence that LGTBIQ+ persons continue to suffer, also in schools. It also requested the adoption of specific measures against the discrimination of lesbians in the health system, job market and schools.
As regards reception of LGBTQI+ asylum seeker, a report published by Accem in 2018 underlined the necessity to make the reception system more flexible, in order to better respond to their specific needs. In addition, the report recommended the creation of safe environments, able to guarantee that asylum seekers are able to express their identity.
The NGO CEAR reported that, during the 2020 lockdown, LGTBI+ asylum applicants received threats while at hosted in the reception facilities in the enclaves from other migrants coming from the same country of origin.
In order to improve the reception conditions of LGTBI+ asylum seekers and refugees, in 2020 the National federation of lesbians Gays, Trans and Bisexuals (Federación Estatal de Lesbianas, Gais, Trans y Bisexuales – FELGTB) urged the Government to adopt specific protocols to assist LGBTQI+ persons in the reception system and the international protection procedure. In November 2020, the first reception facility for LGBTQI+ asylum seekers was opened by the NGO Kifkif with 20 places. The organisation also called for the creation of a law on trans persons, with a migrant and intercultural perspective.
In occasion of the Gay Pride 2021, the NGO Accem called the Government for an asylum system that considers the specific needs of LGBTI+ asylum seekers.
In January 2021, around 500 women and 80 feminist groups further signed a manifesto for the gender self-determination and for the rights of transgender persons. At the beginning of 2021, the NGO Kifkif raised concerns about the increase of HIV positive cases among LGTBIQI+ refugees, especially transgender women. The National Federation of Lesbians, Gays, Trans and Bisexuals (Federación Estatal de Lesbianas, Gais, Trans y Bisexuales – FELGTB) called UN Special Rapporteurs and Experts to provide recommendations to the Spanish Government on how to guarantee the rights of trans persons, especially regarding their self-determination.
In June 2021, the Congress of Deputies requested the Government to promote Spain as a safe destination for LGTBI+ persons that are persecuted in their origin countries for their sexual identity and orientation, by designing a specific reception plan and fostering an investigation at the International Criminal Court against those States persecuting LGTBI+ persons.
 DGIAH, Reception Handbook, November 2018, A, 6.
 DGIAH, Reception Handbook, November 2018, G.2 (22), G.3 (24).
 DGIAH, Reception Handbook, November 2018, F.F.1 and F.F.5, 15 and 17.
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 Ibidem, 18 and 39.
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 PSOE, Aprobada una moción del PSOE para sustituir el término MENA en la legislación por “niños, niñas y adolescentes no acompañados”, 28 October 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/39bBQgM.
 El Diario, La Policía investiga una brutal agresión homófoba en el centro de Madrid cometida por ocho encapuchados, 6 September 2021, available at: https://bit.ly/38NxKKP; El Salto Diario, Agresión homófoba en Madrid a plena luz del día: ocho encapuchados atacan y cortan a un joven en un portal, 6 September 2021, https://bit.ly/3tm6FYw.
 El Diario, Un joven trans es agredido en València por dirigirse a su atacante en género neutro: “Anoche me reventaron la nariz con unas cuantas hostias”, 7 September 2021, available at: https://bit.ly/3zVHTB0.
 El Salto Diario, La brutal agresión homófoba en Madrid dispara la rabia con concentraciones en varias ciudades, 8 September 2021, available at: https://bit.ly/3tqybV6; El Diario, ‘El miedo al retroceso y el hartazgo por la violencia cotidiana movilizan al colectivo LGTBI’, 10 September 2021, available at: https://bit.ly/3kJXHS5.
 Togayther, ‘Kifkif reclama políticas públicas efectivas para superar la serofobia y la discriminación múltiple que enfrentan refugiados LGTB+ VIH positivos’, 30 November 2020, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3oigz9w.
 Red Acoge, ‘Declaración del Foro para la Integración Social de los Inmigrantes aprobada en el pleno del 23 de junio de 2021 contra los delitos de odio’, 23 June 2021, available at: https://bit.ly/32Z6KrW.
 UGT, Las personas LGTBI migrantes sufren una doble discriminación, 28 June 2021, available at: https://bit.ly/2Wpnwhk; Madrid Diario, UGT Madrid debe ser refugio para los derechos de las personas LGTBI, 29 June 2021, available at: https://bit.ly/3zmVm4x.
 CEAR, ‘Refugio LGTBIQ+: una ‘nueva normalidad’ sin discriminación por ser, sentir o amar’, 28 June 2020, available at: https://bit.ly/3JAvcB0; EASO, ‘EASO Asylum Report 2021. Annual Report on the situation of asylum in the European Union’, June 2021, p. 269, available at: https://bit.ly/31l5Aqx.
 El Diario, ‘500 mujeres y 80 colectivos feministas firman un manifiesto a favor de la autodeterminación de género y los derechos de las personas trans,’ 20 January 2021, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/36hgXPk; Cuarto Poder, Colectivos y activistas feministas se unen por la defensa de los derechos de las personas trans, 20 January 2021, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/2YdRcv5.
 Togayther, ‘Kifkif alerta del incremento de casos positivos por VIH en refugiados LGTBI, especialmente entre mujeres trans migrantes’, 12 February 2021, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/37n4r1f.
 Federación Estatal de Lesbianas, Gais, Trans y Bisexuales, ‘FELGTB solicita a relatores de Naciones Unidas que insten al Gobierno de España a garantizar los derechos trans‘, 5 February 2021, available in Spanish at: https://bit.ly/3qt2x6Q.