An asylum seeker that has no other financial means has the right to receive Basic Care services after lodging an asylum claim. In practice, basic care services are provided following the first interview on travel routes. The responsibility to provide Basic Care services is split between the Federal system and the states and is regulated in an agreement between the two since 2004.
During the admission procedure the federal state is in charge of providing Basic Care through its state agency the BBU GmbH. The agency is in charge of the three reception centres (EAST) where the first procedural steps such as medical checks and registration are conducted. Besides the EAST there are currently nine federal centres where asylum seekers are being accommodated. After admission to the procedure the responsibility to provide Basic Care shifts to the states. Asylum seekers should be taken over by the states from federal care facilities to a state quarter as soon as possible. State facilities are generally smaller units (former pensions etc). The conclusion of the corresponding contracts with the facilities falls under the responsibility of the respective states. Applicants for international protection are accommodated as long as they fall under the Basic Welfare Service Agreement.
In practice, the transfers of asylum seekers from federal facilities to the facilities in the states have not functioned smoothly and the actors blame each other for these delays. As a result, asylum seekers stay in large and inadequate federal centres for longer time than needed. Nevertheless, following the start of the BBU GmbH as Basic Care provider during the admission period, the transfers to the state systems seems to have increased and the cooperation has improved.
When there is a high number of applications for international protection, applicants are transferred to so called federal distribution centres after the admission phase is concluded – from which they will be transferred to provincial facilities, which are smaller facilities where they stay until the end of the procedure.
If a person receives a refugee status, he or she can stay up to four months in the reception centre before being forced to leave the accommodation, while there is no time limit applicable to persons holding a subsidiary protection. In some states such as Styria, rejected asylum seekers are told to leave the next day after receiving the negative decision. In other provinces such as Vienna the practice is different. The reason for these different practices is that some states consider that rejected asylum seekers who do not leave voluntarily no longer fall under the basic care regulation.
If persons do not opt for voluntary return, the BFA can order them to accept an accommodation place in so called return centres. These centres are located in the mountains of Tyrol, close to the Vienna Airport and in a remote village in Upper Austria. There, the rejected asylum seekers receive basic care services. If they refuse to be accommodated in these places, they are not entitled to basic care in other provinces and the risk of being apprehended in deportation centre is likely to increase.