If an asylum seeker from a non-Schengen country has arrived in the Netherlands by plane or boat, the application for asylum must be lodged at the AC Schiphol, which is located at the Justitieel Centrum Schiphol (JCS). The application centre Schiphol is a closed centre, which means that asylum seekers are not allowed to leave the centre (see Place of Detention). Asylum seekers are further not transferred to the POL after the application, as is the case for asylum seekers who entered the Netherlands by land and/or lodged their asylum application at the COL. Vulnerable asylum seekers such as children do not stay at JCS.
As of 2019, the total capacity of the Dutch reception system reached 27,000. However, 5,000 additional places have been announced for 2020 to tackle the significant delays in the rest and preparation period and the subsequent length of stay of asylum seekers in reception centres. The reception system is divided into different types of accommodation described below.
Central Reception Centre (COL) and Process Reception Centres (POL)
Asylum seekers who enter the Netherlands by land have to apply at the Central Reception Centre (Centraal Opvanglocatie, COL) in Ter Apel, where they stay for a maximum of three days. The COL is not designed for a long stay.
After this stay at the COL, the asylum seeker is transferred to a Process Reception Centre (Proces Opvanglocatie, POL). There are four POL in the Netherlands: Ter Apel, Budel, Wageningen, Schiphol and Gilze, totalling a capacity of 2,000 places. Neither capacity nor occupancy of COL and POL are registered.
At the POL the asylum seeker will take the next steps of the rest and preparation period and awaits the official asylum application at the application centre. As soon as the asylum seeker has officially lodged an asylum application he or she receives a certificate of legal stay. Due to lack of capacity in the POL, the so-called pre-POL have been opened in which there are less facilities such as medical care and language lessons, and applicants in principal get no weekly allowance. The Dutch Council for Refugees reported that the excessive waiting time in the rest and preparation period (up to two years) has serious consequences regarding the material reception conditions and mental health of asylum seekers, such as access to medical care, tension in the centers due to serious concerns about family reunification and a lack of facilities since the (pre-)POL is not designed for a long stay. Also, The Dutch Council for Refugees and the Ombudsman fear a set-back in integration possibilities for applicants since there is no or limited possibility to perform volunteer work or get access to language education.
1.2. Centres for Asylum Seekers (AZC)
An asylum seeker remains in the POL if the IND decides to examine the asylum application in the regular asylum procedure (within eight days). If protection is granted, the asylum seeker is transferred to a Centre for Asylum Seekers (Asielzoekerscentrum, AZC) before receiving housing in the Netherlands. If the IND decides, usually after four days, to handle the application in the extended asylum procedure, the asylum seeker will also be transferred from the POL to an AZC. At the beginning of 2020, there were 27.420 persons residing in reception centres managed by COA.
Due to the large number of asylum applications in 2015, COA was experiencing difficulties to provide accommodation for all asylum seekers. Creative solutions were needed, for example emergency reception centres and allowing refugees with a residence permit to reside with family and friends. The number of people in reception centres has decreased from 47,764 at the end of 2015 to 21,037 at the end of 2017. Therefore, such solutions were no longer needed. However, due to the long waiting times at the IND, applicants spend longer periods in the reception centres. The COA has announced that they will need 5,000 extra places in 2020 due to this development. 
Extra Begeleiding en Toezichtlocatie (EBTL) / Handhaving en Toezichtlocatie (HTL)
Extra Guidance and Supervision Locations (Extra begeleiding en toezichtlocaties, EBTL) were installed as a special reception centre for asylum seekers who have caused tension or any form of nuisance at an AZC, for example by bullying other inhabitants, destroying materials, exhibiting aggressive behaviour or violating the COA house rules. Throughout 2019, minors aged 16 or more could also be transferred to these locations.
The rules in these centres are stricter than regular AZC; inhabitants are obliged to report whenever they leave or return to the centre. There can also be compulsory day programs during which asylum seekers have limited opportunities to communicate with the outside world. 
There has been one EBTL in Amsterdam, which opened in November 2017 and closed in November 2019, and one in Hoogeveen, which opened in December 2017. Both EBTL have a capacity of 50 places each. Until April 2019 around 322 asylum seekers have been transferred to the EBTL (10% of them twice) – most of them being Dublin transfers and originating from North African countries.
At the end of 2019 an evaluation of the EBTL took place. It concluded that this type of reception has not been effective in changing the behaviour of violent applicants. This is partly due to the fact that these applicants often have mental disorders and psychiatric problems. As a result, the EBTL will be closed.
The State Secretary has announced to open a so-called Enforcement and Supervision Location (Handhaving and Toezichtlocatie, HTL) for asylum seekers that seriously violate the house rules of the reception centres. This will be opened in the former EBTL of Hoogeveen. The difference with the EBTL is that in this reception centre the objective is no longer to change the behaviour of the applicant. Applicants placed in the HTL will get a stringent area ban and a compulsory day program. Further information about the implementation of the HTL and specific limitations or obligations for the applicants placed in this facility are currently unknown. These facilities are to be distinguished from VBL or GL, where persons subject to return proceedings may be housed.
Article 3(3) Aliens Act.
Asylum seekers who are not stopped at an international border of the Netherlands and want to make an asylum application have to go to the COL in Ter Apel, even if they initially came by plane or boat.
See for example: NOS, “Ombudsman: zakgeld en privacy voor asielzoekers vanwege lange wachttijden”, 10 March 2020, available in Dutch at: https://bit.ly/33OOlL1.
Article 1(n) RVA, Decision of Secretary of State, No 69941, 3 December 2018
Article 9 (7) RVA
Letter of the Secretary of State, KST 19637, No. 2446, 15 November 2018.