Differential treatment of specific nationalities in the procedure


Country Report: Differential treatment of specific nationalities in the procedure Last updated: 30/11/20





Refugees arriving directly from Syria are subject to a group-based, prima facie-type Temporary Protection regime in Turkey. The temporary protection regime currently in place covers Syrian nationals and stateless Palestinians originating from Syria. Those coming through a third country, however, are excluded from the temporary protection regime. Although they should be allowed to make an international protection application under the LFIP, in practice they are not allowed to apply and are only granted a short-term visa and then a short-term residence permit. This includes Syrian nationals who may arrive through another country even if their family members in Turkey already benefit from temporary protection.[1]




Iraqis are generally granted short-term residence permits once they are in Turkey. Even where they apply for international protection, they are usually encouraged to opt for a short-term residence permit.[2] Previously, DGMM referred Iraqi Turkmens to Turkemenli Dernegi in Ankara with a view to confirming their origin. These persons usually obtain international protection, as do Uyghurs from China.[3]




The barriers to access to the procedure following the takeover of registration of applicants for international protection by DGMM in September 2018 (see Registration) have had particularly adverse effects on certain nationalities. Single male asylum seekers from Afghanistan face particular obstacles to accessing registration compared to other nationalities, as many PDMM are reluctant to register their asylum applications.[4]


Other nationalities


In 2019 there were still complaints of systematic and automatic rejections for asylum seekers from Iran including for those who had already been interviewed by UNHCR under the previous registration system. Many Iranian asylum seekers have been ordered to leave.[5]

Asylum seekers of African origin also face discrimination in registration. Some PDMM such as Kastamonu reportedly refuse to register their asylum applications. Prior to September 2018, such applicants, especially Somali families, were referred to Isparta and Burdur where communities are settled. This has not been the case since the takeover of registration by DGMM.[6]

In 2019 DGMM began to grant long term residency and humanitarian residence permits to applicants on the grounds of a new humanitarian circular.[7] The humanitarian residence permit is mainly granted to Egyptians, Chechens, Daghestanis and Tajiks. The authorities assess each application on a case-by- case basis depending on the likelihood of persecution in the country of origin. These groups are generally not deported to their country of origin, even if a deportation decision is issued against them.[8]


[1] Information provided by stakeholders, March 2019.

[2] Information provided by a stakeholder, March 2019.

[3] Information provided by a stakeholder, March 2019.

[4] Information provided by stakeholders in Ankara, Van, Antakya and Izmir, February to March 2020. See also, Refugees International, ‘'We don't have space for you all': The struggles Afghan refugees face in Turkey’, 12 June 2019, available at: https://bit.ly/2wBnPbI; and Refugees International, ‘”You cannot exist in this place” Lack of registration denies Afghan refugees protection in Turkey’, 13 December 2018, available at: https://bit.ly/2RE8Epv.

[5] Information provided by a stakeholder, March 2020.

[6] Information provided by a stakeholder, February 2019.

[7] Information provided by a stakeholder from Istanbul, February 2020.

[8] Information provided by a stakeholder, March 2020.


Table of contents

  • Statistics
  • Overview of the legal framework
  • Overview of main changes since the previous report update
  • Introduction to the asylum context in Turkey
  • Asylum Procedure
  • Reception Conditions
  • Detention of Asylum Seekers
  • Content of International Protection
  • Temporary Protection Regime
  • Content of Temporary Protection