Both refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are entitled to social benefits, in particular unemployment benefits, on the same level as German nationals.
Beneficiaries of international protection are entitled to benefits, starting from the first day of the month after the recognition of their status has become legally valid i.e. usually with the arrival of the decision by the BAMF. Problems with access to social benefits may occur during the period when persons have already been granted protection status but still only have the asylum seeker’s permission to stay (Aufenthaltsgestattung) because they have not yet received the residence permit (Aufenthaltserlaubnis) which officially confirms that they have protection status. This may lead responsible authorities to deny social services for the first couple of weeks following the recognition of the status. However, persons concerned would in any case be entitled to the (lower) asylum seekers’ benefits during this period and they can claim payments to which they would have been entitled at a later date.
For persons who are registered as unemployed, the responsible authority is the job centre or Employment Agency. This institution is responsible for the disbursement of unemployment benefits as well as for the provision of other benefits and measures for integration into the labour market; job training measures, support with job applications, specific language courses etc. For persons who are not registered as unemployed (e.g. because they have reached the age of retirement or are unable to work on health grounds), the responsible authority is the Social Welfare Office.
Since August 2016, beneficiaries of protection are generally obliged to take up their place of residence within the Federal State in which their asylum procedures have been conducted for a maximum period of three years (see Freedom of Movement). In several Federal States beneficiaries of protection are also obliged to reside in a specific municipality, also for a maximum period of three years. This obligation can be lifted for certain reasons e.g. for family-related reasons or for education and employment purposes. As long as the obligation is valid, social benefits are generally only provided in the respective Federal State or in the respective municipality.