National legislation provides a number of guarantees with regard to the detention of vulnerable persons, yet does not prohibit their detention. According to Article 52 Asylum Code women should be detained separately from men, the privacy of families in detention should be duly respected, and the detention of minors should be a last resort measure and be carried out separately from adults.
More generally, Greek authorities have the positive obligation to provide special care to applicants belonging to vulnerable groups (see Special Reception Needs). However in practice, persons belonging to vulnerable groups are detained without a proper identification of vulnerability and individualised assessment prior to the issuance of a detention order. In 2022 GCR has supported various cases of vulnerable persons in detention whose vulnerability had not been taken into account.
- A man from the Democratic Republic of Congo, suffering from epilepsy, who was detained in PRDC of Amygdaleza for almost two months.
- A rejected asylum seeker from Somalia, suffering from epilepsy, who was detained in PRDC of Amygdaleza for almost two months.
- A woman asylum seeker originating from Iran, victim of domestic violence, who was detained in a police station and in PRDC of Amygdaleza for a period of one month. After the submission of Objections against detention by GCR the Administrative Court of Athens ordered her release considering her serious mental disorder.
Moreover, victims of torture have been placed in detention on the islands. In the case M.A. v. Greece, the person was kept in the RIC of Moria for one more month and was subsequently placed in detention, on the basis that his asylum claim had been rejected at second instance, despite an order of interim measures set by the ECtHR on 6 May 2020 to guarantee that the applicant’s living conditions were compliant with Article 3 ECHR, “having regard to his state of health and to provide the applicant with adequate healthcare compatible with his state of health.”
Detention of unaccompanied children
Following criticism by international bodies and civil society actors as well as several decisions of the ECtHR, L. 4760/2020 entered into force on 11 December 2020, the possibility to detain unaccompanied children under the pretext of ‘protective custody’ has been abolished. Other legal provisions that allow the detention of unaccompanied children are still in force.
Since the start of the implementation of the new legislation, unaccompanied children as a rule do not remain in administrative detention and they are transferred to reception facilities. However, even in 2022 a small number of unaccompanied children, as corroborated by the official statistics has been placed in detention, in most of the cases for very short periods. At the end of 2022, 14 unaccompanied children were detained, in most cases for very short periods. In total, 515 unaccompanied children were kept in PRDCs countrywide during 2022.
Detention following wrong age assessment
As mentioned above (Guarantees for vulnerable groups), until August 2020, two Ministerial Decisions were providing for the age assessment procedure of unaccompanied children:
- Ministerial Decision 92490/2013 laid down the age assessment procedure in the context of reception and identification procedures and
- Joint Ministerial Decision 1982/2016 provided for an age assessment procedure for persons seeking international protection before the Asylum Service, as well as persons whose case was still pending before the authorities of the “old procedure”.
On 13 August 2020 the Joint Ministerial Decision 9889/2020 entered into force. It sets out a common age assessment procedure both in the context of reception and identification procedures and the asylum procedure. However, the scope of the JMD 9889/2020 does not extend to age assessment of unaccompanied children under the responsibility of the Hellenic Police. In practice, children under the responsibility of police authorities are as a rule deprived of any age assessment guarantees set out in the relevant Ministerial Decision, and systematically undergo medical examinations consisting of left-hand X-ray, panoramic dental X-ray and dental examination in case their age is disputed. In addition to the limited reliability and highly invasive nature of the method used, it should be noted that no remedy is in place to challenge the outcome of that procedure.
A number of cases of unaccompanied children detained as adults were identified by GCR during 2022. It is also to be mentioned that those who have been registered as adults remain detained until the fulfilment of the age assessment procedure without any consideration of the presumption of minor age that must accompany the age assessment procedure. The same occurs in cases of individuals who have been identified within the spectrum of the age of minority and they remain detained until the medical examinations are finalised.
Detention of families
Despite the constant case law of the ECtHR with regard to the detention of families in the context of migration control, families with children are in practice detained. Among others, GCR has supported cases throughout 2022 of single-parent families, families with minor children or families where one member remained detained. For instance, there have been cases of families remaining detained for periods exceeding one month following a shipwreck before they were transferred to open accommodation facilities.
 Article 52 (4) Asylum Code.
 Article 52 (3) Asylum Code.
 Article 52 (2) Asylum Code.
 Administrative Court of Athens, ΑΡ373/2023.
 ECtHR, M.A. v. Greece, App No 18179/20, Order of 6 May 2020: Information provided by RSA, 4 January 2021.
 Gov. Gazette A’ 247/11-12-2020, L. 4760/2020.
 Article 48(2) IPA, article 118 of the Presidential Decree 141/1991 regarding “protective custody’ of unaccompanied minors, L.3907/2011.
 Information provided by the Directorate of the Hellenic Police, 8 March 2022.
 Joint Ministerial Decision 1982/2016, Gov. Gazette B’335/16-2-2016.
 Article 22(A)11 JMD 1982/2016, citing Article 34(1) PD 113/2013 and Article 12(4) PD 114/2010.
 Joint Ministerial Decision 9889/2020, Gov. Gazette 3390/Β/13-8-2020.