Persons residing in Sweden need to register at the Swedish Population Register.
When a child is born in Sweden, the maternity ward gathers information about the child and parents and sends a notification to the taxation authorities. If one of the parents is registered in the Registry, the taxation authorities will register the birth and give the child a unique personal identity number which gives access to the welfare system etc. If the parents are not registered, the taxation authorities will notify the Migration Agency who informs the parents that they must apply for residence permit for their new born child.
To register an existing marriage that took place outside Sweden, the taxation authorities have to be notified and evidence of the marriage submitted. Marriages that take place in Sweden require that the couple first go through a procedure with the taxation authorities and their country of origin authorities to prove that there are no impediments to marriage, (hindersprövning). A certificate from the taxation office has to be shown before any marriage ceremony. The person effecting the marriage ceremony must testify that a marriage took place and fill in the requisite form.
Without civil registration a person will have problems with: opening a bank account; working in Sweden; obtaining medical treatment; registering for social insurance. Civil registration is not necessary in order to attend Swedish language courses if he or she has a right to reside in Sweden.
If civil registration does not take place promptly and the beneficiary of international protection needs Health Care then there is a risk that the cost for health care will not be subsidised and therefore be billed for the full cost. Delayed registration with the social insurance office can also cause problems for access to health insurance and the right of a parent to be at home with a sick or newly-born child and get paid the appropriate rate. Once registration is complete there is equal access to these rights as nationals.
Persons who are not residing in Sweden but need to have contact with Swedish authorities could be assigned a Coordination number by the Tax authority. For example, asylum seekers who are working in Sweden will need a Coordination number. Coordination numbers are assigned upon requests from other public authorities. The system of coordination numbers has been criticized by politicians for lacking in control. An official report of the Swedish Government has proposed changes in the registry system and to introduce identity numbers instead of coordination numbers, meaning that an identity check must be done by the Tax authority before an identity number is assigned.
 Ch. 22, Section 13 and Ch. 29, Section 2 Skollag Svensk författningssamling (2010:800). See National Board of Trade, ‘Without a personal identity number in Sweden’, available at: http://bit.ly/2t2f0Fq.