The residence permit issued to refugees and to subsidiary protection beneficiaries allows access to work and even to public employment, with the only permissible limit of positions involving the exercise of public authority or responsibility for safeguarding the general interests of the State. However, the Navigation Code states that enrolment of cadets, students and pupils is reserved only for EU or Italian citizens, a rule that appears to be discriminatory.
Beneficiaries are entitled to the same treatment as Italian citizens in matters of employment, self-employment, subscription to professional bodies, vocational training, including refresher courses, for training in the workplace and for services rendered by employment centres.
With an amendment introduced to the budget law in December 2017, tax incentives are provided for social cooperatives, which will recruit beneficiaries of international protection with a permanent contract in 2018.
According to the law, the Prefects, in agreement with the Municipalities, promote any initiative for the voluntary involvement of beneficiaries of international protection in activities of social utility in favour of local communities. The activities are unpaid and financed by EU funds.
 Article 25 Qualification Decree.
 Article 119 Navigation Code.
 Royal Decree 327 of 30 March 1942. See Redattore Sociale, ‘Rifugiati equiparati a categorie protette: incentivi a cooperative che li assumono’, 19 January 2018, available in Italian at: http://bit.ly/2FSlZ5o.
 Article 22-bis Reception Decree, as amended by Article 8 Decree Law 13/2017 and L 46/2017.