Article 27 of the Qualification Decree specifies that beneficiaries of international protection are entitled to equal treatment with Italian citizens in the area of health care and social security.
Social security contributions in Italy are mainly provided by the National Institute of Social Security (Istituto Nazionale di Previdenza Sociale, INPS), the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (Istituto Nazionale Assicurazione Infortuni sul Lavoro, INAIL), municipalities and regions.
The provision of social welfare is not conditioned on residence in a specific region but in some cases is subject to a minimum residence requirement on the national territory. This is namely the case for income support (Reddito di Cittadinanza), to be paid from 1 April 2019, which is subject to 10 years of residence on the national territory out of which at least 2 years’ uninterrupted residence.
This can entail serious obstacles for beneficiaries of international protection in practice, more so after the entry into force of Decree Law 113/2018, according to which the registration at the registry office can only be obtained after the grant of a protection status (see Civil Registration).