According to article 14 TUI, amended by Decree Law 130/2020, the Questore asks the Department of Public Security of the Ministry of the Interior where to send the foreigner. Furthermore, Decree Law 130/2020 has established a priority to be given to the detention of foreigners who are dangerous to public order and security or who have been convicted even with a non-definitive sentence for an offence impeding entry, and that a priority has to be given in any case to citizens of countries with which repatriation agreements exist (for which the length of detention can be increased of 30 days).
In its report to Parliament of March 2020 the Guarantor for the rights of detained persons expressed concern that many people had been detained without legal basis and in fact most had been released on the orders of the judges.
As of 15 of November 2021, out of 4,489 people who passed through the CPRs, 702 (15%) were released because the detention was not considered legitimate by the Judge. 2231 (49%) people were repatriated.
In 2020, out of 4,387 people who entered the CPRs, 723 (16%) were released because the detention was not validated and 2,232 (50%) were actually repatriated.
Asylum seekers shall not be detained for the sole reason of the examination of their application. An applicant shall be detained in CPR, on the basis of a case by case evaluation. As a result of the amendments made by the Decree Law 130/2020 converted into Law 173/2020 these cases arise when:
- He or she falls under the exclusion clauses laid down in Article 1F of the 1951 Convention, following a decision of the CNDA; or under Article 12 (1, b, c) and under Article 16 of the Qualification Decree.
- a bis) He or she submits a subsequent asylum application during the execution of a removal order, according to Article 29 bis Procedure Decree.
- Is issued an expulsion order on the basis that he or she constitutes a danger to public order or state security, or as suspected of being affiliated to a mafia-related organisation, has conducted or financed terrorist activities, has cooperated in selling or smuggling weapons or habitually conducts any form of criminal activity, including with the intention of committing acts of terrorism;
- May represent a danger for public order and security or in case of crimes mentioned by Article 12 (1, c) and 16 (1, d bis) Qualification Decree and regarding some exclusion clauses.
According to the law, to assess such a danger, previous convictions, final or non-final, may be taken into account, including the conviction adopted following the enforcement of the penalty at the request of the party pursuant to Article 444 of the Italian Criminal Procedure Code, in relation to certain serious crimes, to drug crimes, sexual crimes, facilitation of illegal immigration, recruiting of persons for prostitution, exploitation of prostitution and of children to be used in illegal activities.
- Presents a risk of absconding.
The assessment of such risk is made on a case by case basis, when the applicant has previously and systematically provided false declarations or documents on his or her personal data in order to avoid the adoption or the enforcement of an expulsion order, or when the applicant has not complied with alternatives to detention such as, stay in an assigned place of residence determined by the competent authority or reporting at given times to the competent authority. Following Decree Law 13/2017, implemented by L 46/2017, repeated refusal to undergo fingerprinting at hotspots or on the national territory also constitutes a criterion indicating a risk of absconding.
The Reception Decree also provides that:
- Third-country nationals who apply for asylum when they are already held in CPR and are waiting for the enforcement of a return order pursuant to Article 10 TUI or an expulsion order pursuant to Articles 13 and 14 TUI shall remain in detention when, in addition to the above-mentioned reasons, there are reasonable grounds to consider that the application has been submitted with the sole reason of delaying or obstructing the enforcement of the expulsion order.
Detention for identification purposes
Furthermore, a 2018 amendment to the Reception Decree has added that:
- Asylum seekers may be detained in hotspots or first reception centres for the purpose of establishing their identity or nationality. If the determination or verification of identity or nationality is not possible in those premises, they can be transferred to a CPR.
Although the new Article 6(3-bis) of the Reception Decree foresees the possibility of detention for identification purposes in specific places, such places are not identified by law. In a Circular issued on 27 December 2018, the Ministry of Interior specified that it will be the responsibility of the Prefectures in whose territories such structures are found to identify special facilities where this form of detention could be performed. At the time of writing, there is no information on the identification of these premises.
As those dedicated premises have never been identified, detention for identification purposes occurs de facto in hotspots. In Lampedusa, ASGI and other civil society organisations have reported that the centre gate is constantly closed and migrants are able to leave the centre only through openings in the fence, regularly adjusted by the administration and then reopened by migrants. More broadly, people taken to Lampedusa are de facto detained on the island, considering that they cannot purchase a title of travel and leave without an identity document.
While the law does not clarify the procedure relating to the validation of this form of detention, the Ministry of Interior Circular of 27 December 2018 generically refers to validation by the judicial authority. According to ASGI, the same procedure envisaged for other grounds for detention of asylum seekers should apply to these cases.
In addition, the law does not specify in which cases the need for identification arises, thus linking detention not to the conduct of the applicant but to an objective circumstance such as the lack of identity documents.
According to ASGI, the new detention ground represents a violation of the prohibition on detention of asylum seekers for the sole purpose of examining their application under see Article 8(1) of the recast Reception Conditions Directive. People fleeing their countries often do not have identification documents and cannot contact the authorities of the countries of origin as this could be interpreted as re-availing themselves of the protection of that country.
No data on persons identified in hotspots for the full year in 2021 is available at the time of writing. In 2020, out of 4,387 persons detained in CPRs, 565 (12%) were released given that they were not identified in the timeframe foreseen by the law. In the first four months of 2021, out of 1,490 persons detained in CPRs 187 (12%) were released because they were not identified in the timeframe foreseen by the law.
 According to Article 4 (3) and 5 (5) TUI.
 Article 14 (1.1) TUI.
 Article 6(1) Reception Decree.
 Article 6(2) Reception Decree.
 Decree Law 130/2020 converted by L. 173/2020 has amended Article 6 (2,a) Reception Decree, enlarging the exclusion clauses to be referred to detain asylum seekers.
 Introduced by Decree Law 130/2020 converted by L 173/2020.
 Article 13(1) TUI.
 Article 13(2)(c) TUI.
 Article 3(1) Decree Law 144/2005, implemented by L 155/2005.
 Article amended by Decree Law 130/2020 converted by L 173/2020
 Article 380(1)-(2) Criminal Procedure Code is cited, which refers to individuals who have participated in, among others, the following criminal activities: (a) child prostitution; (b) child pornography; (c) slavery; (d) looting and vandalism; (e) crimes against the community or the state authorities.
 Article 13(5), (5.2) and (13) and Article 14 TUI. Article 13 TUI, to which Article 6 Reception Decree refers, also includes the obligation to surrender a passport but this should not be applied to asylum seekers because of their particular condition.
 Article 10-ter(3) TUI, inserted by Decree Law 13/2017 and L 46/2017.
 Article 6(3) Reception Decree.
 Article 6(3-bis) Reception Decree, inserted by Article 3 Decree Law 113/2018 and L 132/2018 and amended by DL 130/2020 and L. 173/2020.