Access to the labour market

Poland

Country Report: Access to the labour market Last updated: 16/04/21

Author

Independent

Refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection have access to labour market on the same conditions as Polish citizens. There is no difference between refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries. Access to employment is not limited to certain sectors.

In pratice they have access to employment although they face obstacles, e.g. language skills, qualifications, low awareness of employers about their full access to the labor market. Additionally, labour market institutions are not prepared to help beneficiaries of international protection to enter the labour market in Poland, despite a clear obligation to do so in the law. NGOs report that foreign employees face discrimination, often on multiple basis.[1]

Low language skills  and low professional qualifications results in unemployment or employment with low salary; instability of employment; small chances for a promotion.[2] It is easier to find a job in bigger cities, e.g in Warsaw where vocational trainings are provided in foreign languages. Support of the state is only provided during the 12-month Individual Integration Programme (IPI). Although beneficiaries of international protection have access to professional qualifications programs, they are held in Polish which exclude their participation in practice. There are no programs specially dedicated to foreigners improving professional qualification with learning Polish. Additionally, the specific needs of foreigners are not taken in to account.[3]

In the report from 2020, the key problems were identified as: insufficient knowledge of Polish by beneficiaries of international protection, modest linguistic skills of the labour market services and limited ties and social networks, which often act as barriers for them to find a job. Assistance provided by social workers within IPI in most cases consist of support in completing documentation necessary to register at labour office, searching for job offers and contacting a potential employer as well as informing about the possibility of participating in vocational training in Polish. Vocational trainings on the other hand do not respond to market needs.

An important finding of the study is that despite early and effective inclusion in the labour market which gives a greater chance for integration of beneficiaries of international protection with Polish society, there is a lack of mechanism to mainstream integration of beneficiaries of international protection in labour market. There is also a lack of monitoring system for acquisition of work skills, and recognition of qualifications as well as for labour market inclusion of beneficiaries of international protection. Moreover, data related to trainings and effectiveness of IPI in relation to labour market inclusion are not collected in a systematic way.[4]

Polish NGOs play an invaluable role in helping migrants and refugees and it is not different in the area of integration on the labour market. The report lists all the projects and activities NGO have ran in 2020 in order to facilitate access to labour market for beneficiaries.[5] The COVID-pandemic made it ever harder to obtain and maintain workplace.[6] Some NGOs raised money for alimentation for beneficiaries who lost their jobs during pandemic.[7]

 

 

[1] P. Mickiewicz, Dyskryminacja cudzoziemców na rynku pracy [in] Stowarzyszenie Interwencji Prawnej (SIP), SIP w działaniu. Prawa cudzoziemców w Polsce w 2018 r. (2019), available (in Polish) at: http://bit.ly/2S507LV, 53.

[2] Mikołaj Pawlak ‘Zatrudnienie’ in A Górska, M Koss-Goryszewska, J Kucharczyk (eds), W stronę krajowego machanizmu ewaluacji integracji: Diagnoza sytuacji beneficjentów ochrony międzynarodowej w Polsce (Instutut Spraw Publicznych 2019), 32.

[3] Mikołaj Pawlak, ‘Kwalifikacje zawodowe’ in A. Górska, M. Koss-Goryszewska, J. Kucharczyk (eds), W stronę krajowego machanizmu ewaluacji integracji: Diagnoza sytuacji beneficjentów ochrony międzynarodowej w Polsce (Instutut Spraw Publicznych 2019), 37.

[4] K. Sobczak-Szelc, M. Pachocka, K. Pędziwiatr, J. Szałańska, ‘Integration Policies, Practices and Responses. Poland – Country Report’, Multilevel Governance of Mass Migration in Europe and Beyond Project (#770564, Horizon2020), available at: http://bit.ly/3bfjTxL, p. 134.

[5] K. Sobczak-Szelc, M. Pachocka, K. Pędziwiatr, J. Szałańska, ‘Integration Policies, Practices and Responses. Poland – Country Report’, Multilevel Governance of Mass Migration in Europe and Beyond Project (#770564, Horizon2020), available at: http://bit.ly/3bfjTxL, p. 46-47.

[6]  M.K. Nowak, ‘Poprosiła o postojowe, zerwano umowę. Uchodźcy dziś nie mają na chleb, jutro stracą mieszkanie’, 30 May 2020, available (in Polish) at: http://bit.ly/3b1D79R.

[7]  See Ocalenie Foundation news, Potrzebna pomoc żywnościowa, available (in Polish) at: http://bit.ly/2ORh924 .

Table of contents

  • Statistics
  • Overview of the legal framework
  • Overview of the main changes since the previous report update
  • Asylum Procedure
  • Reception Conditions
  • Detention of Asylum Seekers
  • Content of International Protection
  • ANNEX I – Transposition of the CEAS in national legislation