Since June 2016, the Hungarian state has completely withdrawn integration services provided to beneficiaries of international protection, thus leaving recognised refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection to destitution and homelessness. Only non-governmental and church-based organisations provide the needed services aimed at integration such as housing, assistance with finding an employment, learning Hungarian language or assisting in family reunification. Moreover, the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe points out in her 2019 report that xenophobic rhetoric and attitudes also have a harmful effect on the integration of recognised refugees. By contrast, the general migration strategy adopted in 2013 called for the creation of a tolerant Hungarian host society. However, this strategy has never been materialised. According to a comparative report on refugee integration frameworks in 14 EU Member States from 2019, written by Wolffhardt et al., among east-central European countries Hungary stands out as providing the least advantageous integration policy framework. As for the authors this is due to deliberate policy choices and has no relation to the country’s long and short histories of receiving refugees and there is no correlation shown between the country’s region and its position in relation to the recent movements.
Keeping in mind the complete withdrawal of the state from the integration of beneficiaries of international protection, we discuss the content of international protection as follows:
A. Status and residence
B. Family reunification
C. Movement and mobility
E. Employment and education
G. Health care
HHC, Two years after: What’s Left of Refugee Protection in Hungary?, September 2017, available at: http://bit.ly/2EdCWqm.
CoE-CommDH – Council of Europe – Commissioner for Human Rights: Commission for Human Rights of the Council of Europe Dunja Mijatović; Report following her visit to Hungary from 4 to 8 February 2019, 21 May 2019, available at: http://bit.ly/2TemwbJ.
Wolffhardt A., Conte C. and Huddleston T., The European Benchmark For Refugee Integration: A comparative analysis of the national integration evaluation mechanism in 14 EU countries, Migration Policy Group and Institute of Public Affairs, 2019, available at: https://bit.ly/39gJDrc, 159.
Wolffhardt et al. 2019, 49.
Wolffhardt et al. 2019, 10.