Types of accommodation

Hungary

Country Report: Types of accommodation Last updated: 25/04/22

Author

Hungarian Helsinki Committee Visit Website

On 31 December 2021, there were 2 open reception centres and 1 home for unaccompanied children in Hungary. The reception centres are:

Reception Centre Location Maximum capacity Occupancy at end 2021[1]
Balassagyarmat Near Slovakian border 140 5
Vámosszabadi Near Slovakian border 210 0
Fót Near Budapest 130 13[2]
Total 480 5

Source: NDGAP and Directorate-General for Social Affairs and Child Protection.

There is a visible discrepancy between the numbers of occupancy and the maximum capacity of reception facilities in the table above. As of March 2017, open reception facilities were not efficiently used due to the systematic detention of asylum seekers in the transit zones until May 2020 (see Access to the Territory and Place of Detention). After May 2020, the lack of access to asylum procedure is accountable for that. Nevertheless, due to the rescued Afghan refugees arriving to Hungary by the Hungarian Defence Forces in August 2021, both reception centres in Vámosszabadi and Balassagyarmat experienced overcrowding for a short time. The Afghan evacuees were moved to private accommodation before the end of October 2021. Since their very arrival, they have been assisted by NGOs and volunteers (see more details under Differential treatment of specific nationalities in the procedure).

Balassagyarmat is a community shelter with a maximum capacity of 140 places for asylum seekers, beneficiaries of international protection, persons tolerated to stay, persons under immigration procedure and foreigners having been held for 12 months in immigration detention. In 2020, there were 22 asylum seekers and 93 persons under alien policing procedure placed in Balassagyarmat.[3] The NDGAP provided only an aggregated number regarding 2021 according to which there was a total of 469 persons placed in Balassagyarmat based on different legal basis.[4] Thus, the exact number of asylum seekers accommodated here was not provided.

Vámosszabadi Reception Centre is located outside of Vámosszabadi, close to the Slovakian border. It is a three-storey-high pre-manufactured building, which used to serve as one of the barracks of the Soviet troops stationed in Hungary.[5] Prior to 21 May 2020, the centre hosted primarily beneficiaries of international protection released from the transit zones. According to the information provided by NDGAP, people on average had stayed there only 2-3 weeks before they left the country.[6] With the closure of the transit zones the number of people under the effect of the Asylum Act increased as a total of 528 persons were accommodated in Vámosszabadi in 2020. A further 52 persons under alien policing procedure were placed here, as well.[7] The NDGAP provided only an aggregated number regarding 2021 according to which there was a total of 638 persons placed in Vámosszabadi based on different legal basis.[8] Thus, the exact number of asylum seekers accommodated here was not provided.

The centres are managed by the asylum authority.[9] As of 2019, the reception facilities and detention centres fall under the exclusive management and supervision of the central Refugee Affairs Directorate of the NDGAP.[10]

Unaccompanied children are accommodated in Fót. The Károlyi Istvány Children’s Home in Fót is a home for unaccompanied children located in the North of Budapest and belongs to the Ministry of Human Resources. Its maximum capacity was 130 children in 2021.[11] Prior to 21 May 2020 children above the age of fourteen were detained in the transit zones (as it is detailed in Detention of vulnerable applicants).

Fót hosts unaccompanied children whose asylum procedure is still on going, recipients of refugee, subsidiary protection and tolerated status, as well as those who are under the effect of an alien policing procedure. The Children’s Home’s closure was announced in 2016. Although a deadline for shutting the Home down has been proclaimed several times, the Home remains open at the time of writing. The children and staff are constantly kept in the dark about the future of the Children’s Home and any possible plans for the future.

In 2020, Fót registered 13 unaccompanied minors out of whom two children applied for asylum. According to the information provided by the Directorate-General for Social Affairs and Child Protection, the NDGAP established the responsibility of Germany for the asylum procedure and transferred the two unaccompanied minors to Germany accordingly.[12]

On 31 December 2020, there were no asylum-seeking children, but 3 minor beneficiaries of subsidiary protection resided in the facility.[13] In 2021, 3 unaccompanied asylum seekers were registered in Fót. On 31 December 2021, there were 13 unaccompanied asylum seekers registered, nevertheless, there were only 3 children present.[14]

 

 

 

[1] Regarding Balassagyarmat, the total number of residents was 6 as there was one person under alien policing procedure.

[2] Note that according to the answer of the Directorate-General for Social Affairs and Child Protection, there were 3 children present and the other 10 were away without permission on 31 December 2021.

[3] Information provided by the NDGAP on 2 March 2021.

[4]  Information provided by the NDGAP on 7 February 2022. For instance, this number includes the 180 Afghan evacuees who were not subject to an asylum procedure.

[5] Cited from the report published by HHC, Safety Net Torn Apart – Gender-based vulnerabilities in the Hungarian asylum system, 26 June 2018, available at: http://bit.ly/2FOjALa.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Information provided by the NDGAP on 2 March 2021.

[8] Information provided by the NDGAP on 7 February 2022. For instance, this number includes the 270 Afghan evacuees who were not subject to an asylum procedure.

[9] Section 12(3) Asylum Decree.

[10] Order of the Minister of Interior no. 26/2018. (XII. 28.) amended the order of the Minister of Interior no. 39/2016. (XII. 29.) on the determination of the structural and operational order of the Immigration and Asylum Office.

[11] Information provided by the Directorate-General for Social Affairs and Child Protection on 7 April 2022.

[12] Information provided by the Directorate-General for Social Affairs and Child Protection on 13 April 2021.

[13] Information provided by the Directorate-General for Social Affairs and Child Protection on 13 April 2021.

[14] Information provided by the Directorate-General for Social Affairs and Child Protection on 7 April 2022.

Table of contents

  • Statistics
  • Overview of the legal framework
  • Overview of the main changes since the previous report update
  • Asylum Procedure
  • Reception Conditions
  • Detention of Asylum Seekers
  • Content of International Protection
  • ANNEX I – Transposition of the CEAS in national legislation