Resettlement and family reunification departures


Country Report: Resettlement and family reunification departures Last updated: 10/07/24



The general procedure

PMM pre-identifies cases for resettlement consideration among the registered temporary protection caseload through the PDMM and makes referrals to UNHCR in lists. When UNHCR identifies the applicants most in need of resettlement from these lists, it presents them to third countries. As of 2021, PMM and European Union Agency for Asylum (EUAA) has started to work together in terms of resettlement to the EU countries.[1]

The final decision is taken by the third countries. They examine the files and decide whether to accept the relevant applicants, especially after conducting security checks. IOM organises the implementation of health checks, the preparation of travel documents and the cultural orientation of those accepted for resettlement.[2]

Departure of temporary protection beneficiaries to third countries for the purpose of resettlement is subject to the permission of PMM.[3] A so-called “exit permission” must be issued in order for a beneficiary to be allowed to exit Türkiye to a third country either for the purpose of a temporary visit or on a permanent basis for the purpose of resettlement.

The same exit permission requirement also applies to temporary protection beneficiaries in the process of departing from Türkiye for the purpose of family reunification with family members in third countries. Syrians seeking a family reunification departure from Türkiye must first register with PMM as a temporary protection beneficiary before they can subsequently request and obtain an “exit permission” to leave Türkiye to a third country.[4] IOM supports more than 20 countries including USA, Canada and EU countries in these efforts.[5]  In Türkiye, many refugees want to reunite with family members in Europe. IOM conducts family reunification interviews. Often a Syrian family has some members in Germany, with other family members in neighboring countries such as Lebanon and Türkiye. The person in Germany receives refugee status or subsidiary protection status. In Türkiye, family members apply for a family reunification visa through the German Consulates and can migrate to Europe.

In practice, however, certain profiles of temporary protection beneficiaries are issued a “V91” code referring to “temporary protection holders in need of exit permission” (Ülkeden Çıkışı İzne Tabi Geçici Koruma Kapsamındaki Yabancı) and which prevent them from exiting Türkiye. “V91” codes are usually issued to highly qualified Syrians.

According to PMM statistics, a total of 21,568 Syrians had been transferred to third countries between 2014 and May 2023, mainly to Canada, the US, the UK and Norway.[6]


The 1:1 resettlement scheme

The EU-Türkiye statement of 18 March 2016 established a specific resettlement procedure (“1:1 scheme”), under which one Syrian national would be resettled from Türkiye to EU Member States for each Syrian national returned from Greece to Türkiye, taking into account the UN vulnerability criteria.[7] Since 2021, the European Union Agency for Asylum (EUAA) has collaborated with PMM to facilitate resettlement in EU member states. In its Istanbul office, EUAA handles resettlement cases and conducts cultural interviews and orientation trainings. However, certain countries in the EU, such as Germany, manage the entire resettlement process on their own. The German consulate in Istanbul is solely responsible for the resettlement procedure.[8]

As of 12 May 2023, the following numbers of refugees had been resettled to the EU under the 1:1 scheme:

Resettlement of Syrian refugees under 1:1 scheme
Country of destination Number of resettled persons:12 May 2023
Germany 15,596
France 5,745
Netherlands 5,520
Sweden 3,152
Finland 2,749
Belgium 1,795
Spain 1,000
Portugal 456
Italy 396
Croatia 250
Austria 213
Luxembourg 206
Lithuania 102
Romania 108
Bulgaria 85
Estonia 59
Latvia 46
Slovenia 34
Denmark 31
Malta 17
Total 37,560

Source PMM, Temporary protection, 12 May 2023:


From 2016 up until May 2023, a total of 37,560 Syrians had been resettled to the EU through the one-to-one policy.[9] Resettlement procedures were suspended from March until July 2020 in the context of COVID-19 and the suspension had continued in 2022 as the numbers were not dramatically changed.

In the first eight months of 2022, Frontex recorded nearly 188,200 irregular entries at the external frontiers of the European Union, the highest total since 2016. In the first eight months of 2022, irregular entries into the EU increased by 75 percent compared to the same period in 2021, according to data published on 9 September by the EU border agency Frontex. It is the highest figure for January-August since 2016 was recorded. Frontex reported that the Western Balkan and Central Mediterranean routes remained the busiest, while the Western Mediterranean route and the eastern terrestrial border saw a decline in arrivals. In August alone, European Union member states recorded approximately 32,600 irregular border crossings, a 35% increase over the same month in 2021.[10]




[1]  Information provided by a stakeholder, June 2023.

[2]  IOM, ‘Yeniden yerleştirme’, 2023, available at:  

[3]  Article 44 TPR.

[4]  UNHCR, ‘Üçüncü Ülkeye Yerleştirme’, last accessed 13 July 2022, available at :   

[5] IOM, ‘Yeniden yerleştirme’, 2023, available at:

[6] PMM, Temporary protection, available at:    

[7] Council of the European Union, EU-Türkiye statement, 18 March 2016, para 2.

[8] Information provided by a stakeholder, June 2023.

[9] PMM, Temporary protection, available at:

[10] Info Migrants, ‘Migrant arrivals in EU up 75% in 8 months, Frontex’, 2023, available at:   

Table of contents

  • Statistics
  • Overview of the legal framework
  • Overview of main changes since the previous report update
  • Introduction to the asylum context in Türkiye
  • Asylum Procedure
  • Reception Conditions
  • Detention of Asylum Seekers
  • Content of International Protection
  • Temporary Protection Regime
  • Content of Temporary Protection